The late-1960s and 1970s also witnessed the appearance of "Body Art", a type of Performance in which the artist's own flesh becomes the canvas and subsequently "performs" in a suitably shocking, newsworthy manner (for more see below).During the 1980s, Performance art increasingly relied on technology (video, computers) to deliver its "artistic" message.Important exponents of Conceptualism include Sol Le Witt, Joseph Beuys, Felix Gonzales-Torres, Eva Hesse, Jenny Holzer, Joseph Kosuth, Barbara Kruger, Jean Tinguely and Lawrence Weiner.

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Moreover its insistence on being labelled "art" - traditionally a bourgeois event - sits awkwardly alongside its anti-establishment ethic.

Performance now includes events and "happenings" by visual artists, poets, musicians, film makers, video artists and so on.

A good example is the series of self-destructive machines - probably the most famous examples of kinetic art - created by the Swiss artist Jean Tinguely (1925-91).

Even so, the exact difference between innovative theatre and Performance art is hard to detect.

It has been suggested that this has the characteristics of a Conceptual artwork, because walking past the huge pile of shoes helps us to comprehend the terrifying reality of the gas chambers.

Indeed it does, but frankly it doesn't turn the shoes into a work of art, or indeed any type of artistic statement.

(Compare Holocaust art 1933-45.) It is a political or historical statement.

Thus the difficulty for Conceptualism is to show how it qualifies as art, as opposed to entertainment, theatre, or political commentary.

Fluxus was an avant-garde group of artists (its name means "flowing" in Latin) led by the Lithuanian-born art theorist George Maciunas (1931-78), which first appeared in Germany before spreading to other European capitals and then New York City, which became the centre of its activities.